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Friday March 31st 2017

The Story of Parahiyangan

Ancient Literature | Wednesday, 8 December 2010 | sundanesecorner.org

'Gunung', pastels on paper, drawing by my daughter Arti Mustikaning Ati (2010)

translated by Hawé Setiawan

 

(based on an Indonesian version of the 16th century Sundanese manuscript Carita Parahiyangan edited by Atja and Saléh Danasasmita)*

/1/

Lo, this is the Story of Parahiyangan.

Sang Resiguru begot Rajaputra.

Rajaputra begot Sang Kandiawan and Kandiawati; they are brother and sister. Sang Kandiawan then called himself Rahiyangta Dewaraja. When he became an ascetic king, he called himself Rahiyangta of Medangjati, which was Sang Layuwatang. It was he who composed Sanghiyang Watangageung. After marrying, the couple had five offspring, incarnations of Sang Kusika, Sang Gangga, Sang Méstri, Sang Purusa, Sang Patanjala, and they were: Sang Mangukuhan, Sang Karungkalah, Sang Katungmaralah, Sang Sandanggreba, Sang Wretikandayun.

/2/

A pair of birds, Si Uwur-uwur and Si Naragati, made a nest in the sacred bathing place of Bagawat Resi Makadria. The male ate their offspring, which irritated the female.

The female said, ‘It will disgrace us to have no children. Look at Bagawat Resi Makadria. He may live an ascetic life, but he is in disgrace for he has no child.’

Bagawat Resi Makadria said, ‘How can I have a child, since I have no wife?’

And Bagawat Resi Makadria said, ‘I am going to see Sang Resiguru of Kéndan.’

He arrived at Kéndan.

Sang Resiguru asked, ‘What has brought you here, Bagawat Resi Makadria?’

‘Forgive me, for I have something to tell you. I would like to ask for a lady to marry, for I have been told by the birds Si Uwur-uwur and Si Naragati that it is shameful if one has no child.’

Sang Resiguru said, ‘Just return to your retreat. Oh my daughter, Pwah Aksari Jabung! Leave us and go to Bagawat Resi Makadria. He will be your companion in his hermit’s abode!’

So off went Pwah Rababu. When she arrived at the retreat, she was not recognized (by Bagawat Resi Makadria), for she looked like a very beautiful angel. Then (Pwah Aksari Jabung) transformed herself into Pwah Manjangandara, and Bagawat Resi Makadria transformed himself into Rakeyan Kebowulan. They had coitus.

Resiguru said, ‘My dear daughter, Pwah Sanghiyang Sri! Take leave and incarnate yourself as your elder sister, Pwah Aksari Jabung!’

And Pwah Sanghiyang Sri went and incarnated herself, and became Pwah Bungatak Mangaléngalé.

/3/

Sang Mangukuhan said, ‘Come on, my younger brothers, let’s go hunting, to the field!’

When they arrived at the middle of the field, they saw Pwah Manjangandara and Rakeyan Kebowulan. The five brothers hunted them. They agreed amongst themselves that the first one to stab their quarry with a spear would be a king!

Wretikandayun stabbed the hunted with his spear; Kebowulan and Pwah Manjangan ran to the retreat. They died. Sang Wretikandayun followed them. He found Pwah Bungatak Mangaléngalé suckling on Pwah Manjangandara’s breast. Sang Wretikandayun brought her to Galuh, (and offered her) to Rahiyangta of Medangjati.

/4/

(Rahiyangta of Medangjati) reigned for fifteen years, and he was succeeded by Sang Wretikandayun, who had married Pwah Bungatak Mangaléngalé.

And Sang Mangukuhan became a farmer, Sang Karungkalah became a hunter, Sang Katungmaralah became a tapper, Sang Sandanggreba became a trader. As [they] had become farmer, hunter, tapper, trader, then by the will of Sang Wretikandayun: Sang Mangukuhan appointed Rahiyangta Kulikuli, Sang Karungkalah appointed Rahiyangta Surawulan, Sang Katungmaralah appointed Rahiyangta Pelesawi, Sang Sandanggreba appointed Rahiyangta Rawunglangit.

Sang Wretikandayun reigned in Galuh. Then he became an ascetic king, calling himself Rahiyangta of Menir. When he had a household, the couple maintained Purbatisti.

He reigned for ninety years.

[He] was succeeded by Rahiyangta Kulikuli, who reigned for eighty years.

[He] was succeeded by Rahiyangta Surawulan, who reigned for six years. In the seventh year he was toppled because of his misdeeds.

[He] was succeeded by Rahiyangtang Pelesawi, who reigned for a hundred and twenty two years due to his perfect conduct.

[He] was succeeded by Rahiyangtang Rawunglangit, who reigned for sixty years.

/5/

[He] was succeeded by Sang Mandiminyak.

The offspring of Rahiyangtang of Menir were three brothers. The eldest was Rahiyang Sempakwaja, who became Batara Dangiyang Guru of Galunggung. There was also Rahiyangtang Kidul, who became Batara Hyang Buyut of Denuh. And there was Rahiyangtang Mandiminyak, who became a king in Galuh.

Sang Resi Guru said, ‘I pity Rahiyang Sempakwaja, for he has no wife. My dear daughter Pwah Rababu, take leave and go to Rahiyang Sempakwaja. He will be your companion in the retreat.’

Sang Resi Guru rubbed his headband with his hands, so it became a white jalalang, and ordered it to visit Rahiyang Sempakwaja, who was making a roof.

Rahiyang Sempakwaja said, ‘Oh! How on earth could a white jalalang appear here?’

He took a blowpipe, and hunted the jalalang. He saw Pwah Rababu bathing in the sacred Lake Candana.

Rahiyang Sempakwaja said, ‘Where does the lady swimming here come from?’

He took her garments, and wound them around the blowpipe. Other aksari, her friends, ran toward the field. Pwah Rababu was taken home by Rahiyang Sempakwaja and became his wife. He loved her greatly. They subsequently had offspring, the brothers Rahiyang Purbasora and Rahiyang Demunawan.

/6/

[She] heard a thunderous din of musical instruments, a very noisy sound: the sound of gamelan in Galuh. So Pwah Rababu returned to Galuh, where many people were dancing.

When she arrived at the courtyard, Rahiyang Mandiminyak said (to his vizier), ‘Who is she, Vizier?’

‘People say someone is dancing at the courtyard.’

‘Here, take these garments! Complete it! This is my responsibility. Pick her up, by force!’

So the vizier went to the courtyard. Pwah Rababu was brought to the palace. Rahiyangtang Mandiminyak married her. He loved Pwah Rababu so much that he married her. They had offspring, a child named Sang Salah.

/7/

Rahiyang Sempakwaja said, ‘Rababu, please leave! Take the baby to Rahiyang Mandiminyak! Show the result of your conduct: Sang Salahtuah!’

So Pwah Rababu left for Galuh.

‘Rahiyang Sempakwaja sent me to bring you this baby, whose birth was caused because you forced me.’

Rahiyangtang Mandiminyak said, ‘You are my son, Sang Salah.’

Rahiyangtang Mandiminyak said, ‘Vizier, put this baby in a vase. Take him away to the field!’

The vizier carried the baby away to the field. When the vizier returned, a sign shined from the field to the heaven. On seeing the light, Rahiyangtang Mandiminyak said, ‘Vizier, examine the field, look at the baby!’

The vizier went back to the field, and found that the baby was still alive. So he picked him up and took him to Rahiyangtang Mandiminyak. The baby was named Sang Sena.

/8/

Having reigned for seven years, Rahiyangtang Mandiminyak was succeeded by Sang Sena. (Sang Sena) reigned for seven years, and was toppled by Rahiyang Purbasora. Accordingly, Sang Sena was exiled to Mount Merapi, where his son Rakeyan Jambri was born.

When he had grown up, Rakeyan Jambri went to consult Rahiyangtang Kidul, in Denuh, in search of a hiding place.

Rahiyangtang Kidul said, ‘My dear grandson, I do not want you to stay here, for I am afraid that you will be recognised by the people of Galuh. Go from here and see Sang Wulan, Sang Tumanggal, and Sang Pandawa of Kuningan. Also, whose offspring are you?’

Rakeyan Jambri replied, ‘I am the son of Rahiyang Sang Sena, who was toppled and exiled by Rahiyang Purbasora.’

‘So, it is my obligation to protect you. But please do not ignore my words, for I hope that you will be defeated if you wage war against me. Go to the west. See the Lord of Sunda.’

When he encountered the Lord of Sunda, the Lord of Sunda took him as his son-in-law. Rakeyan Jambri left him to visit Rabuyut Sawal.

Rabuyut Sawal asked him, ‘Do I know you?’

‘I am the son of Sang Sena. I would like to ask you something about a book you once took/possessed. The book deals with ratuning bala seribu, something that, if mastered, will lead to perfection and supernatural powers bestowed by Sang Resi Guru.’

Rabuyut Sawal gave the book to him.

And Rakeyan Jambri returned to Galuh, and waged war against Rahiyang Purbasora. Rahiyang Purbasora was killed in battle.

(Rakeyan Purbasora) reigned for seven years.

(He) was succeeded by Rakeyan Jambri, who is Rahiyang Sanjaya.

/9/

Rahiyang Sanjaya said, ‘Vizier, take a leave! Consult Batara Dangiyang Guru, who will reign here.’

When the vizier arrived at Galunggung, Batara Dangiyang Guru said, ‘How are you, Vizier?’

‘Forgive me, I am sent by Rahiyang Sanjaya to consult on the matter of the coming ruler, which is Rahiyang Purbasora’s younger brother.’

Batara Dangiyang Guru advised nothing.

Batara Dangiyang Guru said, ‘Rahiyang Sanjaya should leave in order to prove himself. Challenge Guruhaji Pagerwesi, challenge Guruhaji Mananggul, challenge Guruhaji Tepus, and challenge Guruhaji Balitar. Rahiyang Sanjaya should go in order to challenge Sang Wulan, Sang Tumanggal, and Sang Pandawa of Kuningan. (He) should test his strength, for Sang Wulan, Sang Tumanggal, and Sang Pandawa of Kuningan are not ruled by Dangiyang Guru. If he can defeat them, that proves he is really strong.’

Rahiyang Sanjaya went to Kuningan, and waged a war. He was defeated. He was pursued through the river of Kuningan. Rahiyang Sanjaya went back.

Then Rahiyang Sanjaya returned to Galuh. Sang Wulan, Sang Tumanggal went home to Arile. Rahiyang Sanjaya then appeared before Batara Dangiyang Guru.

So said Batara Dangiyang Guru, ‘Rahiang Sanjaya, what brings you here?’

‘I have something to tell. I had been expected (to wage a war), but I was defeated, and I feel ashamed. Instead of winning the war, I was pursued by Sang Wulan, Sang Tumanggal, and Sang Pandawa of Kuningan.’

So Rahiyang Sanjaya returned to Galuh.

/10/

Sang Wulan, Sang Tumanggal, and Sang Pandawa of Kuningan said, ‘Bring offerings, and we are going to Galunggung; (bring) sufficient outfits, a sheet of thick-skinned mat, and rice for a meal.’

When they arrived at Galunggung, they halted in Pakembangan. They were seen by Pakembangan, and their arrival was informed to Batara Dangiyang Guru.

Batara Dangiyang Guru said, ‘How are you?’

‘Excuse us, Batara Dangiyang Guru. There are Sang Wulan, Sang Tumanggal, and Sang Pandawa in Kuningan.’

‘It is just luck that you come here. Go to Galuh, pick up Rahiyang Sanjaya, and you have to bring offerings: sufficient outfits, a sheet of thick-skinned mat, wide-mouthed iron pot, and rice for a meal.’

When they arrived at Galuh, Rahiyang Sanjaya said, ‘How are you, Pakembangan?’

‘I was sent by Dangiyang Guru. Rahiyang Sanjaya should bring complete offerings. There are Sang Wulan, Sang Tumanggal, and Sang Pandawa in Kuningan.’

So Rahiyang Sanjaya departed. He appeared before Dangiyang Guru. So said Batara Dangiang Guru, ‘Rahiyang Sanjaya, if you can dominate Sang Wulan, Sang Tumanggal, and Sang Pandawa of Kuningan, I shall submit myself to your order. But if I can dominate (them), obey my order, for I have an authority to rule, and not to being ruled. I am a child of god.’

Sang Wulan, Sang Tumanggal, and Sang Pandawa of Kuningan, were dominated by Batara Dangiyang Guru.

Sang Wulan appointed Guruhaji Kajaron.

Sang Tumanggal appointed Guruhaji Kalanggara of Balamoha.

Sang Pandawa of Kuningan appointed Guruhaji Layuwatang.

Sang Puki appointed Guruhaji Pagerwesi.

Sang Misri appointed Buyuthaden Rahasea of Puntang.

Buyuthaden Tanjungputih of Kahuripan.

Buyuthaden Sumajajah of Pagajahan.

Buyuthaden Pasugihan of Batur.

Buyuthaden Padurungan of Lembuhuyu.

Buyuthaden Darongdong of Balaraja.

Buyuthaden Pagergunung of Muntur.

Buyuthaden Muladarma of Parahiyangan.

Buyuthaden Batutihang of Kuningan.

/11/

Rahiyang Sanjaya died in Medang.

The King of Galuh, Sang Seuweukarma.

The younger brother of king of Galuh developed conscience, studied sacred works, built nation, and worshipped Batara Upati.

Rahiyangtang Wereh. His name is Rahiyangtang Wereh; when he was left (by his father) as one of the brothers, he could not be a king because he was toothless. Therefore, he was named Rahiyang Sempakwaja.

Rahiyangtang Kidul failed to be a king because of a hernia, and then he became an ascetic king.

He (Sang Seuweukarma) became King of Kuningan; who was born in a hermit’s abode. He is the son of Rahiyang Sempakwaja.

Rahiyang Sanjaya said, ‘(He) is my relative, Grandfather. So please do not stop guiding me, Grandfather Vizier!’

The vizier said, ‘May we regain our conscience in fulfilling Sanghiyang Darmasiksa. Do not make thyself deaf!’

Another vizier said to Rahiyang Sanjaya, ‘If thou wish for a victory in warfare, leave Galuh!’

(So he) waged war against Mananggul, and defeated the King of Mananggung, (and) Pu Anala was the commander. (He) went to Kauripan, waged war, and defeated Kahuripan. Therefore Rahiyangtang Wulukapeu surrendered. (He) went to the south, waged war, and defeated Rahiyang Supena, who then surrendered. (He) went to Balitar, waged war, and defeated Sang Ratu Bima.

Subsequently, Rahiyang Sanjaya crossed over the land of Melayu. (He) waged war in Kemir, and defeated Rahiyangtang Gana. (He) waged war in Keling, and defeated Sang Sriwijaya. (He) waged war in Barus, and defeated Ratu Jayadana. (He) waged war in China, and defeated Patih Sarikaladarma.

And Rahiyang Sanjaya finally returned to Galuh from his overseas trips.

Postponed.

/12/

Rahiyangtang Kuku, which was Sang Seuweukarma, consulted his ministers and lords, and he was advised with the ultimate moral doctrines.

‘Let us make a visit, and bring gifts, to Rahiyang Sanjaya. (Let us) carry a catty of gold, five sheets of cloth, as our presents for Rahiyang Sanjaya.’

Meanwhile, in Galuh (Rahiyang Sanjaya) was consulting his ministers.

‘Let us decorate the road in order to welcome Sang Seuweukarma, which is Rahiyangtang Kuku.’

When they arrived at the crossroads to Galuh and Galunggung, Seuweukarma was welcome, and his feet were washed.

Rahiyangtang Kuku said, ‘Sang Patih, please lead us to Rahiyang Sanjaya. Our presents are a catty of gold and five sheets of cloth.’

Sang Patih replied, ‘Forgive me, my Lord. Rahiyang Sanjaya does not expect gold and iron. It is only the prosperity of people, which is expected.’

It confused Rahiyangtang Kuku, so that he returned to Arile. He consulted his ministers.

Rahiyangtang Kuku said, ‘What is to be presented as our sign of loyalty to Rahiyang Sanjaya?’

/13/

‘What a lovely (place it is)! This is the abode of Rahiyang Sempakwaja.’

So said Rahiyangtang Kuku, (and then he) went to Arile, and built a compound in Kuningan.

It was said that Rahiyangtang Kuku, which was Sang Seuweukarma, had been enthroned in Kuningan; (he was) the son of Rahiyang Sempakwaja. His parents provided a sanctuary for the people.

Other cities, countries, and islands, from Keling (through elsewhere), submitted to Rahiyangtang Kuku—Rahiyangtang Luda of Puntang, Rahiyangtang Wulukapeu of Kahuripan, Rahiyangtang Supremana of Wiru, Rahiyangtang Isora of Java, Sang Ratu Bima of Bali. From the west, in Tutang Sunda, across the land of Melayu: Rahiyangtang Gana the king of Kemir, Sang Sriwijaya of Melayu, Sang Wisnujaya of Barus, Sang Brahmasidi of Keling, and his vizier, Sang Kadarman of Berawan, Sang Mawuwuluasu of Camara Upatah, Sang Pancadana the king of China—they all were dominated by Rahiyangtang Kuku. They all respected the king that reigned in Saunggalah. Sang Seuweukarma ruled over them all, since he held to the doctrine of Dangiyang Kuning.

So said Rahiyang Sanjaya of Galuh, ‘So, Sang Patih, who will rule over us? Rahiyangtang Kuku does not recognize us as his relative. Take a leave, Sang Patih, and make a visit to Kuningan in search of information. We might be considered as having been reluctant to join the (crowning) ceremony, since no one lets us know. Shall you go?’

Sang Patih arrived at Kuningan, visited the palace, and bowed down before Rahiyangtang Kuku.

Rahiyangtang Kuku said, ‘What brings you here, Sang Patih?’

Sang Patih replied, ‘I am sent by Rahiyangtang Sanjaya. I am sent here to probe who will be appointed the next king?’

Rahiyangtang Kuku said, ‘O, Vizier, I deserve to be appointed king by the people. But I do not expect Rahiyang Sanjaya, because he is my relative, and it is useless to do so, for he tends to kill our brothers. And I am appointed to reign in Kuningan by Rahiyang Sempakwaja. Yes. It is Rahiyang Sempakwaja that appoints me to reign here. Therefore, Rahiyang Sanjaya can hardly hurt me.’

The vizier returned to Galuh. Rahiyang Sanjaya asked him, ‘Grandfather, what did Rahiyangtang Kuku say to us?’

‘Forgive me, Rahiyang Sanjaya. Rahiyangtang Kuku succeeded in his asceticism, and he held to Sanghiyang Darma and Sanghiyang Siksa. He follows our ancestors in governing the daily life. Let us follow him without hesitance. Let us prove that we are brothers. We and the Lord (of Kuningan) are the children of god.’

And Rahiyang Sanjaya took the book. When he arrived, he opened the book. It said as follows:

Ong awignam astu (good luck), may perfect the strength, may happy the king, may cry the sinners, Siwa and Kali along with their followers, the wise king of gods, the merciful younger brother of the king of gods, king seven in the four epochs.’

‘And Resi Guru hopes, perfectly descends Sang Kandiawan and Sang Kandiawati. And bear offspring Rahiyangtang Kulikuli, Rahiyangtang Surawulan, Rahiyangtang Pelesawi, Rahiyangtang Rawunglangit, the youngest Wretikandayun. Sang Wretikandayun has son Rahiyangtang Sempakwaja, Rahiyangtang Mandiminyak. Rahiyangtang Mandiminyak has son Sang Sena. Sang Sena has son Rahiyang Sanjaya.’

/14/

The beautiful lady Dobana set out with a seven-fathom boat. The front part of it contained some kind of weapon.

‘Let’s go to Demba Island!’

So they went on sailing.

Sang Siwiragati heard it. [He] would like to send aboard Pwah Sangkari Pucunghaji Tunjunghaji, who will be helped to mount on a white elephant. When [she] and company were about to walk along the yard, Rahiyangtang Kuku, Sang Séwékarma came in suddenly to Demba Island, went to the palace, and sat down behind Sang Siwiragati.

The white elephant pursued Rahiyangtang Kuku. He ran to the yard taking Pwah Sangkari with him. [He] was not found. The white elephant returned to the palace, and he lived in servitude to Rahiyangtang Kuku.

Rahiyangtang Kuku returned to Arile, riding on the white elephant along with Pwah Sangkari.

‘Why don’t [we] bring a guri, a piece, a paha, a pata-payan of gold?’

[They] proceeded to Galuh, and did not make a halt at Arile. [She] was taken on the white elephant, covered with seven kayus of white weaved garment, in a frame of emerald, gold, bezoars, and diamond.

He arrived in Demba, and he soon came to the palace. As Rahiyangtang Kuku arrived at the palace, he said to Rahiyang Sanjaya whether he would like to see the white elephant.

He asked, ‘Where is it?’

[The white elephant] was then mounted. Pwah Sangkari was performed to Rahiyang Sanjaya. Since she arrived at the palace, she has never returned.

So said Rahiyang Sanjaya, ‘What to be afraid of? Now I am safe; I and my father Rahiyangtang Kuku, Sang Seuweukarma. I do not feud [with him] any more. Look (we can manage things) as follows:

‘The Region of Dangiang Guru is in the middle point, the region of Rahiyang Isora is at the eastern bank of Praga and Cilotiran rivers, from the west bank of Citarum to the West, that is the region of Lord of Sunda.’

Afterward Rahiyangtang Kuku went home to Arile. On his arrival in Arile he died, and everything that comes out of his endeavours is blessed as broad as the ocean.

So said Rahiyang Sanjaya, in admonition to his son, Rakeyan Panaraban, that is Rahiyang Tamperan: ‘Do not follow my own way, for I’ve made people afraid of me.’

He reigned for 9 years; and Rahiyang Tamperan succeeded him.

/15/

So Sang Resi Guru began to establish equilibrium in the island of Java. The counterparts are Galunggung and eastern Java.

At the borderline of Sunda, there was a magical priest named Bagawat Sajalajala, who was murdered without any wrongdoing. He reincarnated into Sang Manarah, the son of Rahiyang Tamperan, the brother of Rahiyang Banga.

Sang Manarah took revenge, Rahiyang Tamperan was sent to prison by his son. Sang Manarah imprisoned Rahiyang Tamperan.

So came Rahiyang Banga, weeping, and bringing some rice to the prison; Sang Manarah knew it. [Sang Manarah] had a fight with Rahiyang Banga. Sang Manarah hit Rahiyang Banga’s face.

And Sang Manarah became a king in Pawatan Java (that was the name of the place) according to Javanese way of speaking.

Rahiyang Tamperan reigned for 7 years, because of his wrongdoing in eliminating hermits. That’s why his reign did not last long.

Sang Manarah reigned for 80 years, for he perfectly performed religious obligations.

Sang Manisri reigned for 60 years, for he paid attention to the Sanghiyang Siksa.

Sang Tariwulan reigned for 7 years.

Sang Welengan reigned for 7 years.

/16/

Verily, Sang Resi Guru begot Sang Haliwungan that was Sang Susuktunggal who filled Sanghiyang Rancamaya with soil.

Someone appeared out of Sanghiyang Rancamaya (and said): ‘My name is Sang Udubasu, Sang Pulunggana, Sang Surugana, the divine queen of forest spirit.’

Sang Susuktunggal was the one who established the throne Sriman Sriwacana for the coronation of Sri Baduga Maharajadiraja Ratu Haji of Pakwan Pajajaran who dwelled at Sri Bima Punta Narayana Madura Suradipati palace, which was the palace of Sanghiyang Sri Ratudewata.

The legacy of Sang Susuktunggal was an inherited beautiful and prosperous country; that proved the king’s prominence.

He reigned for 100 years.

/17/

Rahiyang Banga reigned for 7 years, for his manners did not rightly follow the religion.

Rakeyanta of Medang reigned for 7 years.

Rakeyanta Diwus reigned for 24 years.

Rakeyanta Wuwus reigned for 72 years.

Sang Lumahing Hujung Cariang reigned for 3 years. By the fourth year he stepped down from the throne because of his bad manners, fond of taking women by means of other women.

Rakeyan Gendang reigned for 23 years.

Dewa Sanghiyang reigned for 7 years.

Premu Sanghiyang reigned for 11 years.

Prebu Ditiya Maharaja reigned for 7 years.

Sang Lumahing Winduraja reigned for 23 years.

Sang Lumahing Kreta reigned for 92 years, for he held to the prominent conduct, experiencing a golden era.

Sang Lumahing Winduraja succeeded him. His reign did not last long. He reigned for 18 years.

Sang Rakeyan Darmasiksa, the incarnation of Sanghyang Wisnu, succeeded him. It was he who established the education house, built holy places for sang rama, sang resi, sang disri, sang tarahan at worshiping places.

From whose authority [he] knew this?

From the pundits who performed the genuineness of Sunda, held to Sanghiyang Darma, followed Sanghiyang Siksa.

He reigned for 150 years.

[He] begot Sang Lumahing Taman, who reigned for 6 years.

[He] begot Sang Lumahing Tanjung, who reigned for 8 years.

[He] begot Sang Lumahing Kikis, who reigned for 22 tahun.

Sang Lumahing Kiding reigned for 10 years.

[He] begot Aki Kolot, who reigned for 10 years.

/18/

[He] begot Prebu Maharaja, who reigned for 7 years; because of a conspiracy, he faced a tragic fate through his own daughter that was known as Tohaan. She was in need of a big bride price. That was why many women went to Java, did not want to take husbands from Sunda. And a battle erupted in Majapahit.

There was a son of Prabu Wangi whose name is Prabu Niskala Wastu Kancana, which is buried in Nusalarang on the hill of Wanakusuma. He reigned for 104 years, because of his perfectness in religion; he experienced a golden era.

His manners are like that of old man even though he was still young, for the king followed the satmata; followed the guidance of his mentor, Hiyang Bunisora, who was buried in Geger Omas, that was Batara Guru of Jampang.

That was the guidance that was followed by the country ruler.

Batara Guru of Jampang is the one who created the crown Sanghiyang Pake, when he who has the right (to occupy the throne) would be crowned as a king. [That was] resulted from his seclusion in servitude to the Divine. He replicated the crown of Sanghiyang Indra.

So that one might be want to follow the manners of he who is buried in Nusalarang. [He] followed the satmata. Hence, he experienced a golden era, followed the guidance of his mentor.

Therefore, the rama could peacefully provide food, the resi could peacefully perform hermit duties, sustain ancestral habits, the genuine from the past. The Disti could peacefully collect medicines.

(Raja) fulfilled the law of humanity, distributed forests and regions around. [His decision] were not complained about by either the small and the big. Therefore, the tarahan could peacefully sail in order to fulfill the rule of the king.

Water, light, wind, sky, land, peacefully fulfill Sanghiyang Jagatpalaka.

(The king) fulfilled king’s law, based on Sanghiyang Linggawesi. He perpetually lived in seclusion and worship. The holy man peacefully fulfilled divine laws, and fulfilled Sanghiyang Watangageung, peacefully became an ascetic-human-king.

The Lord of Galuh, he who is buried in Gunungtiga, reigned for 7 years, because of his misdeed of loving a forbidden woman (gadis tukon) who came from a foreign region.

/20/

[He] was succeeded by a king, a rightful prince, that’s Sang Ratu Jayadewata that is buried in Rancamaya; [he] reigned for 39 years.

[He] (was loyal to) ancestral customs and tradition; so that he would have never faced both harsh and smooth enemies. May prosperity be spread to the North, South, West, and East, because of peaceful feeling.

Those who were not peaceful were only households that had often transgressed the Sanghiyang Siksa.

[He] was succeeded by Prebu Surawisesa, which is buried in Padaren. He was a warrior, strong and valiant.

He had been involved in battles for fifteen times, and had never lost. He went to the battlefield in Kalapa along with Aria Burah; waged war to Tanjung; waged war to Ancolkiyi; waged war to Wahanten-girang; waged war to Simpang; waged war to Gunungbatu; waged war to Saungagung; waged war to Rumbut; waged war to Gunung; waged war to Gunungbanjar; waged war to Padang; waged war to Panggoakan; waged war to Muntur; waged war to Hanum; waged war to Pagerwesi; waged war to Medangkahiyangan.

Afterward, he returned to Pakuan. Just in few years since, he had accomplished his duties in this world. He reigned for 14 years.

/21/

Prebu Ratudewata is buried in Sawah-tampian-dalem, He acted as an ascetic king, practicing pwah-susu seclusion. He was circumcised in order to be pure from dirty things and could be purified. He was circumcised properly. That is a genuinely Sundanese way.

And there came a catastrophe from enemy’s attack. The cause of it was entirely nonsense. War was waged in the great yard (square?). So fell down Tohaan Sarendet and Tohaan Ratu Sangiang.

A magic priest was killed, the priest in Sumedang. The innocent priest in Ciranjang was also killed, hit with alas kikiran. Priest Jayagiri was drowned into the sea.

There was a priest, who was also an innocent witness. Munding Rahiyang was his name. He was drowned into the sea. He did not die. He live again, and muksa without leaving his body on earth. He was known as Hiyang Kalingan.

So be careful the following (men), do not ever pretend of fasting piously.

That was a hard time!

Prebu Ratudewata reigned for 8 years. By the ninth year his duties in this world have been completed.

/22/

[He was] succeeded by Sang Ratu Saksi Sang Mangabatan of Tasik, which is buried in Pengpelengan. He reigned for 8 years, because of his tragic misdeed with foreign and forbidden woman as well as his stepmother. He killed innocent people, grabbed cruelly the rights of others; he did not pay servitude toward his parents, and he debased priests.

The manners of this king were not to be followed by the next (descendant)!

That is the true story of Sang Prebu Ratu.

/23/

Tohaan of Majaya lost the war; therefore he did not dwell at the palace. He created Sanghiyang Panji (Heirloom Flag), decorated the palace, which was designed in the form of a garden, flanked the forbidden gate. He established a huge building that consisted of seventeen columns, which was illuminated with several scenes from the story in golden colour.

/24/

The time when men in all over the world were not haunted by any sort of doubt was a golden era. No one creates destruction. Peaceful, peaceful!

Bronze age had been gone over. So came iron age (the age of destruction). Sang Nilakendra did nothing but perpetually amusing himself, and finally spread wickedness. He has children, and his conscience was saturated in worldly pleasure. He descended a hermit, which was the grandson of his stepbrother. Intoxicating water was used as flavouring spice.

Farmers were greedy for food. They were not happy if they did not engage in cultivating. It had been too long since the king was allured by food. There was nothing he liked but delicious foods that were proper to his richness.

He reigned for 16 years.

/25/

[He] was succeeded by Nusiya Mulya; who reigned for twelve years. And everything was changed. Reason sank into desire. Disaster stemmed from Islam.

Waging war against Rajagaluh, so that Rajagaluh was defeated; waging war against Kalapa, so that Kalapa was defeated; waging war against Pakuan, so that Pakuan was defeated; waging war against Galuh, waging war against Datar, waging war against Madiri, waging war against Portugis, waging war against Jawakalapa, so that Jawakalapa was defeated; waging war against Gegelang. Crossing to the other side, waging war against Salajo. Islam defeated them all.

Thus ends this story. (Every land) has been ruled by Demak and Cirebon.


* I am deeply indebted to my friend Julian Millie of Monash University for his generous assistance in correcting my grammar and commenting on my rough translation. I am also indebted to Jeffrey Roger Sundberg for his correction and critical reading.

Reader Feedback

6 Responses to “The Story of Parahiyangan”

  1. Adit says:

    Wow..Hebat, Kang. Ka payunna, Sanghyang Sasana Maha Guru..hehe

  2. hawe setiawan says:

    Mangga. Urang emutan. Puguh akang peryogi bantuan Adit dina milihan naskah mana nu kira-kirana kedah enggal-enggal diinggriskeun.

  3. Engkus Ruswana says:

    Hatur nuhun kang Hawe, simkuring reueus pisan akang parantos nyumebarkeun ieu tutungkusan dugi ka tiasa diimeutan ku dunya.

  4. hawe setiawan says:

    Sawangsulna, A Engkus, hatur sewu nuhun. Mugi ieu post sing aya mangpaatna. Amin.

  5. pungkit wijaya says:

    This story must be readable for European or American people, Kang. I like it :)

  6. Dear Pungkit (and friends),

    Thanks for reading this text. It is a challenging task to make Old Sundanese texts reach broader audiences.

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